This district derives its name from its chief town Kurnool the capital of former Nawabs, Capital of Andhra Pradesh State from 1st October 1953 to 1st November, 1956 and at present the headquarters of the district. The name Kurnool is said to have been derived form “Kandanavolu”.
Kurnool District lies between the northern latitudes of 140 54’ and 160 18’ and eastern longitudes of 760 58’ and 790 34’. The altitude of the district varies from 100 ft above the mean sea level. This district is bounded on the north by Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers as well as Mahabubnagar district of Telangana State, on the south by Kadapa and Anantapur Districts on the west by the Bellary district of Karnataka State and on the east by Prakasam District. The district ranks 10 in population with 40,53,463 People accounting for 4.63 % of the total Population of the state as per 2011 Population Census, while in area it occupies the 3rd place with 17658 Sq. Kms., which account for 6.41 % of the total area of the state.
At present Kurnool District comprises 3 Revenue Divisions, 54 Revenue Mandals 53 Mandal Parishads, One Municipal Corporation , 4 Municipalities, 4 Nagara Panchyats, 889 Gram Panchayats , 921 Revenue Villages.
Nallamalas and Erramalas are the two important mountain ranges in the district running in parallel from North to South. The Erramalas divide the district into two well defined tracts from East to West. Between Erramalas and Nallamalas lies the Eastern part of the district comprises Nandikotkur, Pagidyala, Kothapalli, Pamulapadu, Atmakur, Velgodu, J.Bunglow, Midthur, BandiAtmakur, Gadivemula, Nandyal, Mahanandi, Panyam, Banaganapalli, Owk, Koilakuntla, Rudravaram and Chagalamarri Mandals. This tract is crossed by the crest of Krishna and Pennar, watershed at the North part of the Pagidyala mandal at about 1000 above the sea level. From this height the ground slopes to the South along the river Kundu till it traverses into Pennar valley. Major part of its tract is predominantly black cotton soils.
The western tract comprises Pathikonda, Tuggali, Maddikera, Devanakonda, Gonegandla, Dhone, Peapully, Veldurthy, Bethamcherla, Krishnagiri, Kurnool, Orvakal, Kallur, Kodumur, C.Belagal, Gudur, Yemmiganur, Nandavaram, Mantralayam, Adoni, Peddakadubur, Kosigi, Kowthalam, Alur, Aspari, Holagunda, Halaharvi, Chippagiri Mandals. The terrain here slopes from South to North and it is drained by the river Hundri which joins the river Tungabhadra at Kurnool. The soils in the North Western traversed parts by the river Hundri are black cotton while the South Eastern parts are predominantly pure red soils.
The Climate of the district is normally good and healthy. January, February and March months are usually pleasant with moderate winds from South-East. April and May are hottest months of the year, during these months the wind shifts to Southwest with increased force and brings welcome showers by the end of May. During the succeeding four months the wind blows from Western side in Major parts of the district and brings fair quantum of rainfall. By the end of September the wind is light and pleasant forecasting the on set of Northeast monsoon. In November and December the weather is fine, Rainfall is rare and wind is light with occurrence of heavy dew. District normal rainfall of the year is 670.5 mm. During 2015-16 the rainfall received is 479.0 mm.
The principal rivers flowing in the district are the Tungabhadra (and its tributary is Hundri) the Krishna and the Kunderu.
The Tungabhadra rises in the western ghats and after forming part of northern boundary for some distance seperates Kurnool from the Telangana area flown in an Eastern direction receives Hundri and falls into the Krishna river at Kudali Sangam after winding Northwards.
The Hundri, a tributary of Tungabhadra rises in the fields of Maddikera in Maddikera mandal receives a stream from Erramalas at Laddagiri in Kodumur Mandal and joins Thungabhadra at Kurnool. It drains much of Maddikera, Pathikonda Devanakonda, Gonegandla, Kodumur and Kallur mandals. This is trurbid streams with sudden raise and fall. The Kunderu also called Kumudvathi rises on the western side of Erramalas winds its way into Kunderu valley and flows in a Southern direction collecting drainage all along its course from either side. It flows through Orvakal, Midthur, Gadivemula, Nandyal, Gospadu, Koilakuntla, Dornipadu and Chagalamarri mandals and there enters Kadapa District.
FLORA FOREST AND FAUNA FOREST:
The forestic composition of the district stands in direct relation to that climate and edaphic conditions and the biotic influence in various locations.
Broadly speaking the Eastern portion of the District bears better vegetation while the the western of especially the north western portion comprising of Adoni, Peddakadubur, Alur, Aspari, Chippagiri, Halaharvi, Holagunda, Koilakuntla, Sanjamala, Owk, Pathikonda, Devanakonda, Krishnagiri, Veldurthy, Kodumur and Kallur mandals presents a desolate appearance and the vegetation that exists is confined mostly to small pockets of reserve forests.
The total area under forests is 340669 Hec. accounting for about 19 percent of a total geographical area of the district. The major parts of the forest area is confined mainly to the Nallamalas including its extensions, the Erramalas and a part of the Velikondas. The forests covering the Erramalas and Velikondas are of interior type Bamboo with timber species occurs fairly over extensive areas in the district. Tamarind and Beedi leaves are the important minor forest produce of the District.
Wild animals are found in plenty in Nallamalas and Erramalas hills which afford an ideal abide for wild life tiger, panthers, bears, jackals,hyaenas wild bears, foxes, spotted dears, sambrs, black bucks, nelgais, wild sheep etc., are found in these forests. In order to preserve the wild animals, forest of the northern part of Nallamalas covering an area of about 46.815 hectares has been brought under the Nagarjuna Sagar – Srisailam wild life Sanctuary.
Partridges, peacocks, red jungle foul, green pigeon, quails are the chief game birds found in the forests. The great Indian Bustard (Batta Meka) an endangered bird species is found near Rollapadu village of Midthur mandal and an area of about 1,600 hectares around Rollapadu village has been declared as protected area for propagation of this species.
In the year 1983 Tiger project has been started near Srisailam covering 3,568 Sq. Km. of Nallamalas forest with 64 Tigers and 78 Panthers population as per 2003 Census.
LAND AND LAND USE :
The total Geographical area of the district is 17.658 lakh Hect. During the year 2016-17 the area covered by forest is 3.406 lakh Hects. which forms 19.29% to the total geographical area. The net area sown is 8.52 lakh Hects, forming 48.26% to the total geographical area. The total cropped area in the district is 9.17 lakhs Hects. The area sown more than once during the year is 0.65 lakh Hects.
The gross cropped area of the district is 9.17 lakh Hects. Out of which 2.09 lakh Hects. are irrigated through canals, tanks, wells and other sources during 2016-17.
The district receives its power supply from Tungabhadra and Hampi Hydro Electric Power Stations.
Srisailam Hydro-Electric Power Project is constructed across the river Krishna at a distance of 3 Kms. from famous Srisailam Temple. The total cost of Project was Rs.433 Crores. There are seven Hydro generators of 110 M.W. Capacity each and electricity produced during 2016-17 was 207.7 Millian KWH.
MINERAL RESOURCES :
Kurnool District possesses enormous deposits of lime-stone suitable for cement manufacture, apart from this, the important minerals of economic value in the district are barites, yellow shale, white shale, steatite etc.,
The annual out turn of the other minerals in the district is 40.00 lakh M.Tons durning2016-17